Republic of Burundi is a landlocked country in the Great Rift Valley where the African region of the Greats converge Lagos and East Africa. Bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and southeast and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west; Lake Tanganyika is located along its border southwest. The capitals are Gitega and Bujumbura.
For more than 200 of those years, Burundi was a kingdom independent until the beginning of the 20th century, when Germany colonized the region. After the First World War and the defeat of Germany, ceded the territory to Belgium. Both the Germans like the Belgians ruled Burundi and Rwanda as one European colony known as Ruanda-Urundi. Burundi and Rwanda had never been under a common government until the time of the European colonization.
Burundi gained independence in 1962 and initially had a monarchy, but a series of assassinations, coups and a general climate of regional instability culminated in the establishment of a republic and a one-party state in 1966. Episodes of ethnic cleansing and finally two wars civilians and genocides during the 1970s and again in 1990 resulted in hundreds of thousands of deaths and left the underdeveloped economy and population as one of the poorest in the world.
The sovereign state of the Burundi political system is that of a Presidential representative democratic republic based on a multiparty state. The President of Burundi is the head of state and government. There are currently 21 registered matches in Burundi. On March 13, 1992, the leader of the Tutsi coup Pierre Buyoya established a constitution, which provided for a multiparty political process and reflected competition multiparty. Six years later, on June 6, 1998, modified the constitution, expanding the National Assembly and make provisions for two vice presidents. Due to the Agreement Arusha, Burundi enacted a transitional government in 2000. In October 2016, Burundi informed the UN of its intention to withdraw from the International Criminal Court.
Burundi remains primarily a rural society, with only 13.4% of the population living in urban areas in 2019. The population density of about 315 people per kilometer square is the second highest in sub-Saharan Africa. Approximately 85% of the population is of Hutu ethnic origin , 15% are Tutsi and less than 1% are Twe indigenous. Languages Burundi officials are the Kirundi and the French, the Kirundi officially recognized as the only national language. One of the smallest countries in Africa, the land of Burundi It is mainly used for agriculture and grazing of subsistence, which has led to deforestation, erosion soil and habitat loss.
In 2005, the country was almost completely deforested, with less than 6% of its land covered by trees and more than half were plantations commercial. Furthermore Burundi is densely populated and many young people migrate in search of opportunities to other places Burundi is a member of the African Union, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, the United Nations and the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries.