The Republic of the Congo is a country in Central Africa. It is bordered to the north by Cameroon and the Central African Republic, to the south and east by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, to the west by Gabon and to the southwest by the Atlantic Ocean and an Angolan exclave Cabinda. The population does not exceed five million inhabitants, resulting in a low population density. The official languages are French, Kikongo and Lingala; tribal religions are the ones with the most adherents. The economy of the Republic of the Congo continues to be based on agriculture and oil extraction. The current Congolese territory was inhabited by the Bantu tribes until the arrival of the Europeans in the 16th century. It became a colony of France, under the name “French Congo.” After obtaining its independence in the middle of the 20th century, the country went through various political regimes until it reached the multiparty democracy that governs the country in the 21st century. While it was a colony of France, it was part of French Equatorial Africa under the name of the French Congo. It was proclaimed independent on August 15, 1960, its first president being Fulbert Youlou, who was forced to leave the government in 1963, when Alphonse Massamba-Délba took office, who in 1964 founded a Marxist party adopting a planned economy, of socialist base. After decades of turbulent politics and Marxist-Leninist rhetoric, and following the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Congo completed a transition to a multi-party democracy with elections in August 1992. However, a civil war occurred between June 1997 and December In 1999 it was fought between the forces of the two presidential candidates, Denis Sassou Nguesso and Pascal Lissouba. The war ended with the invasion of troops from neighboring countries and the installation of Nguesso in power, who continues in office to this day.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo is one of the fifty and four countries that make up the African continent. Your capital and most populous city is Kinshasa. Located in the equatorial region of Africa, this country comprises much of the Congo River basin, extending to the Great Lakes region. It is the second largest country in the continent, after Algeria. It borders the Republic Central African and South Sudan to the north, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, and Tanzania to the east, Zambia and Angola to the south, and the Republic of the Congo to the west.
It has access to the sea through a narrow 37 km strip of coastline, 1 following the Congo River to the Gulf of Guinea. The name Congo finds its origin in the Bakongo natives, settled on the banks of the Nzadi River or Zaire, renamed in Portuguese as the Congo River. The DRC has a rich and varied history that begins with the first Bantu immigrants to arrive in the area, which would become the epicenter of the great Kingdom of the Congo mid-15th century.
The territory was claimed by the International Association African owned by King Leopold II of Belgium as a state Free from the Congo. The king applied a colonization particularly brutal, which left as a tragic balance between five and ten million of murdered men, women and children.6 The Congo colony Belgian would achieve independence in 1960, to become Zaire under the aegis of the dictator Mobutu Sese Seko. During the government of Sese Seko the country was subjected to a government authoritarian, violent and kleptocratic, who ruined the economy of the Congo.
The fall of the latter caused the beginning of a serious civil war that would degenerate into a continental conflagration, in which the armed forces of more than seven countries intervened, leaving as a tragic balance more than four million dead. The The result was the intervention of the UN with its peacekeepers organized in MONUC.
Between 2003 and 2007 the country experienced a tense calm, under the leadership of a transitional government. Democratic Republic of the Congo was a colony of Belgium called Belgian Congo, after independence the name used was the name of Republic of the Congo until August 1 1964, when its name was changed to República Democratic of the Congo. Before this, the two countries were distinguished by their capitals, the Democratic Republic of Congo with Leopoldville (present-day Kinshasa), Congo-Léopoldville, and the Republic of the Congo with Brazzaville, Congo-Brazzaville.
In 1971, then-President Mobutu changed the name of the country for Republic of Zaire, a name derived from a bad Portuguese pronunciation of the kikongo word nzere o nzadi, which translates as “the river that swallows all rivers “, alluding to the Congo River, which also changed its name to that of Zaire. In the wake of the First Congo War that led to the overthrow of Mobutu in 1997, the country was once again called the Republic Democratic of Congo. Around the third century, a society began to develop in a region initially comprised in an area of 200 kilometers along the banks of the Lualaba River in what is now the province of Katanga. This culture, known as the Upemba, finally became the most important Luba kingdom, and the Kingdom of Congo.
The process by which the Upemba societies were transformed into the Luba Kingdom was gradual and complex. This transition is developed without interruption, with many different societies developing outside the Upemba culture, after the beginning of the Luba. Each of these kingdoms got rich thanks to the exploitation of the minerals of the region. The civilization began to develop and implement the technologies of iron and copper, along with the ivory trade and other goods. The Luba established a strong commercial demand for their metal technologies and were able to create extensive network trade. Around 1500 the kingdom had established a strong central government based on caciquismo. The influence that radiated from the colony of Angola was very important, embracing their kings Catholicism and accepting many cultural elements. From the seventeenth century, after various civil wars and clashes with the Dutch and Portuguese, entered into decline, although it lasted two centuries plus.
The Congo Free State or Independent State of the Congo was an African colonial domain, private property of King Leopold II of Belgium, established at the Berlin Conference in 1885, whose borders coincided with the current Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Congo was privately administered by the king Leopoldo until his death in 1908, the year in which the territory was ceded to Belgium. During this period, the Congo was subject to exploitation systematic and indiscriminate use of its natural resources, especially ivory and rubber, for which hand was used of indigenous work in conditions of slavery. To keep your control over the native population, the colonial administration established a regime of terror, in which the mass killings and mutilations, which produced a extremely high number of victims. Although it is impossible to realize exact calculations, most authors mention figures of between five and ten million dead.
Beginning in 1900, the European and American press began to report on the dramatic conditions in which the native population of the territory. Diplomatic maneuvers and pressure from public opinion got the Belgian king renounce his personal dominion over the Congo, which became become a colony of Belgium, under the name Congo Belgian. As part of the international policy of the United Nations, the end of the colonization of the nations that they came to form the so-called Third World. In the case of Belgian possessions, in 1959 the first elections were held free that were won by the Congolese National Movement, directed by Patrice Lumumba
In 1960, Patrice Lumumba, together with the National Movement Congolese, he was appointed prime minister by winning the first legislative free elections. Joseph Kasavubu, of the party Bakongo Alliance, he was appointed president by the parliament. The Belgian government wanted to continue to control mining wealth of the country and, frightened by the chaos in which he had sunk, supported the split of Katanga and South Kasai, where there was a large colony of Belgian citizens, supporting puppet governments in those territories. The Government of Patrice Lumumba requested American aid, not even being received by the President of the USA, which motivated the approach to the sphere Soviet Union, which provided transportation and military advisers with the object of intervening in the separatist provinces. Lumumba he repeatedly denied having any communist ideology.
Subsequent events led to a crisis between the president and the prime minister, culminating on September 5, 1960, when Prime Minister Lumumba was dispossessed by the President Kasavubu. The United Nations sent troops to Lumumba was imprisoned, and he was finally captured by the rebels, led to Katanga and shot on January 17, 1961 with the direct intervention of agents of the Belgian government and the CIA. His mortal remains were burned. with North American support, they fought the secessionists and precariously restored the unity of the country. The most serious crisis occurred in the spring of 1964 when former supporters of Patrice Lumumba, with strong tribal presence, carried out a great revolt. I quickly know seized the north of the country, sweeping away the demoralized government troops.
Likewise, dozens of guerrillas were massacred
Republic of Rwanda is a landlocked country in the Great Rift Valley, where the African region of the Great Lakes and East Africa. One of the smallest countries of the African continent, its capital is Kigali. Located about few degrees south of the equator, Rwanda borders Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
It is very high, which gives it the nickname of “land of thousand hills “, with its geography dominated by mountains to the west and savanna to the east, with numerous lakes throughout the country. The weather is temperate to subtropical, with two rainy seasons and two dry seasons every year. Rwanda has a population of over 12.6 million who live in 26,338 km 2 of land, and it is the country most densely populated continental African.
The population is young, the Rwandans come from a single group cultural and linguistic. However, within this group there are three subgroups: the Hutu, Tutsi, and Twa. Christianity is the largest religion in the country; the main language is Kinyarwanda, spoken by most Rwandans, with the English and French as additional official languages. The sovereign state of Rwanda has a system of government presidential. The president is Paul Kagame of the Front Rwandan patriotic, who has worked uninterruptedly since 2000. The country is governed by a strict hierarchy administrative since pre-colonial times; there are five provinces delimited by borders drawn in 2006. Rwanda is one of the only three countries in the world with a female majority in the national parliament.
Rwanda’s developing economy suffered greatly from the genocide of 1994, but since then its The economy is mainly based on the agriculture of subsistence. Coffee and tea are the main crops export trade. Tourism is a sector of fast growth and is now the main generator of foreign exchange in the country. Rwanda is one of only two countries in which mountain gorillas can be safely visited and the Visitors pay high prices for site tracking permits. gorillas.
Music and dance are an integral part of the Rwandan culture, particularly drums and dance intore highly choreographed. Traditional arts and crafts are produced throughout the country, including imigongo, an art unique from cow dung. Rwanda has been ruled with a unitary presidential system with a bicameral parliament governed by the Patriotic Front of Rwanda since 1994. The country is a member of the African Union, the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, COMESA, OIF and the East African Community.
Republic of Burundi is a landlocked country in the Great Rift Valley where the African region of the Greats converge Lagos and East Africa. Bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and southeast and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west; Lake Tanganyika is located along its border southwest. The capitals are Gitega and Bujumbura.
For more than 200 of those years, Burundi was a kingdom independent until the beginning of the 20th century, when Germany colonized the region. After the First World War and the defeat of Germany, ceded the territory to Belgium. Both the Germans like the Belgians ruled Burundi and Rwanda as one European colony known as Ruanda-Urundi. Burundi and Rwanda had never been under a common government until the time of the European colonization.
Burundi gained independence in 1962 and initially had a monarchy, but a series of assassinations, coups and a general climate of regional instability culminated in the establishment of a republic and a one-party state in 1966. Episodes of ethnic cleansing and finally two wars civilians and genocides during the 1970s and again in 1990 resulted in hundreds of thousands of deaths and left the underdeveloped economy and population as one of the poorest in the world.
The sovereign state of the Burundi political system is that of a Presidential representative democratic republic based on a multiparty state. The President of Burundi is the head of state and government. There are currently 21 registered matches in Burundi. On March 13, 1992, the leader of the Tutsi coup Pierre Buyoya established a constitution, which provided for a multiparty political process and reflected competition multiparty. Six years later, on June 6, 1998, modified the constitution, expanding the National Assembly and make provisions for two vice presidents. Due to the Agreement Arusha, Burundi enacted a transitional government in 2000. In October 2016, Burundi informed the UN of its intention to withdraw from the International Criminal Court.
Burundi remains primarily a rural society, with only 13.4% of the population living in urban areas in 2019. The population density of about 315 people per kilometer square is the second highest in sub-Saharan Africa. Approximately 85% of the population is of Hutu ethnic origin , 15% are Tutsi and less than 1% are Twe indigenous. Languages Burundi officials are the Kirundi and the French, the Kirundi officially recognized as the only national language. One of the smallest countries in Africa, the land of Burundi It is mainly used for agriculture and grazing of subsistence, which has led to deforestation, erosion soil and habitat loss.
In 2005, the country was almost completely deforested, with less than 6% of its land covered by trees and more than half were plantations commercial. Furthermore Burundi is densely populated and many young people migrate in search of opportunities to other places Burundi is a member of the African Union, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, the United Nations and the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries.